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Epilepsy: A Window on the Brain | American Epilepsy Society

I have been using Todd for over 15 years. Always displaying the utmost respect, he is attentive and courteous to all my clients. His ideas are always insightful and I greatly appreciate his creativity when he designs a Ronny Carroll Home. Recent studies have linked neuronal regeneration to integrin proteins, which function as receptors that enable neurons to interact with specialized molecules in the surrounding environment during development.

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Neurons taken from developing animals typically have very high levels of integrin, but neurons from adult animals have very little of this protein. In this study, Condic used a modified adenovirus to insert extra copies of a gene for one kind of integrin protein into sensory neurons taken from adult rats.

A second group of neurons received extra copies of a different integrin gene. The additional genes produced levels of integrin in the adult neurons that were comparable to those in newborn animals.


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  • The neurons were cultured in conditions similar to those of the adult central nervous system. Condic then measured the amount of nerve fiber growth displayed by the adult neurons with extra integrin genes and compared it to the growth of neurons from newborn rats and of adult neurons that had received a non-integrin gene. She found that increasing the amount of either of the integrin proteins dramatically increased the amount of nerve fiber growth in the adult neurons. The increase in growth was more than ten times greater than that in any other published study of regeneration by adult neurons.

    The adult neurons with the extra integrin genes were able to extend nerve fibers profusely even when growth-inhibiting proteins were present in the culture. The amount of growth was indistinguishable from that of neurons from newborn animals. In the past, many scientists believed that the inherent limitations on growth of nerve fibers from adult neurons were too complex to be significantly affected by altering a few genes. In this study, however, the effect of increasing just one gene was striking.

    Epilepsy: A Window on the Brain

    The finding complements studies of factors in the nervous system environment that improve regeneration. Effective therapies will probably employ a multi-pronged approach that alters environmental factors as well as the inherent properties of the neurons, Condic says.


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    However, it should be much easier to regulate gene expression in specific neurons than to change the environment of the brain. Because the nervous system is so complex, there is also a risk that changes to the environment of the brain could inadvertently harm neurons outside of the damaged area and result in problems such as epilepsy or increased sensitivity to pain. Doctors could then add and subtract the chemical to turn the genes on and off, allowing them to precisely control the amount of nerve fiber growth in that region of the brain.

    However, an approach of this type is still theoretical, and more research is needed before scientists can predict whether such a technique might work in humans. Condic and colleagues are now planning to study integrin gene expression in an animal model with a type of spinal cord injury that is common in humans.